A discussion about the Syoki
Why now I discuss the Shoki to describe the Kojiki? I will say the reason hereafter. Most of peoples have been respecting and solely using the Shoki since long ago, and also erudite persons in various eras had been endeavoring to treat it and many commentaries on the part of the volume of Jindai of it were wastefully frequently made, hence they have been not considering the Kojiki indifferently and not thinking it as which shoud be focused.
If we ask why is this, I must say that peoples fully forgot the spirits of our great states by which it just gets familiar with the spirits of Chinese texts.
Therefore, I’m going to discover the confusion of the minds of Chinese, and show the reason the Kojiki must be respected, and indicate the way of the learning for our states.
That is, first, if we don’t know that the Syoki has many embellishment, and if don’t realize the meaning of the editing, we are getting a lot of illness from the mind of Chinese. If we have got the illness, it is difficult to understand the Kojiki as important. If we don’t understand it as important, we can not find the true way of studies on ancient times.
In the opening of the discussion, we should take the meaning of the title, the Nihon-Shoki .
This curse is which it is added the name of our Empire, following the names of Chinese records called “Han-texts”, “Jin-texts” and others. However, because the names frequently change in China through the periods, it is inconvenience, if doesn’t add the name of current empire.Nevertheless, our Empire continues to exist as well as Earth and Sky, and Successor of the deity of Sun be never chaned, therefore, we should separately think of our Empire and Chinese empire.
Thus, which add the name of Empire is method when the name of other empire exsists, then what other name against the name of current empire?
That seems solely a name corresponding to China, then the name must be to flatter the empire of China.
(The later records were named, referring to this record, even the histories of Montoku and the three generations were named with the name of Empire. It must mean that it didn’t has the thought.)
Nevertheless, why have the peoples in later eras thought this style as noble?
It seems what the title was made by the mind of very unsatisfyed the spirit of us, and of envied the other.
（Although a person said, “This record must have been named it such the name to show it to the Chinese”, but it actually isn’t so. If it’s named for especially show to foreigner, such as the person said, it’s not better, all the more.）
The style it written is how consisting even maenings and words embellished materially by the endeavoring to make it to be similar to the abother nation’s. On top of that, it actually has a large number of which its words of persons or its meanings of materials unmatch to them being in ancient times.
In the first place, it’s said on Jindaiki, “In the ancient time, sky and earth was still formed, and ‘In’ and ‘Yoe’ didn’t separate from each other, as which the confusion was like an egg”, and “after that, God have appeared in that”, these are a personal opinion composed from various Chinese arguments gathered from some places by editor of the Syoki, hence, that is clearly not true tradition in ancient times.
Then it say, “hence it is said, ‘On the time of creation, lands was drifting, that as the moving fishes on the surface of the water’ ”, this is actually a real tradition from an ancient time.
A preceding statement above the words “hence it is said”, have been known as a adding statement that it is a embellishment.
If not so, what does this two letters mean?
The former is entirely artificial, and it was undoubtedly produced by the mind of Chinese, absolutely not by the mind of antique of Japan.
A person knowing the antique with thinking it, would find out this, themselves.
Why it took a very terrible interfering hypothesis which is borrowed from, and place the proceeding statement from of an other country, though, in the first place, the scene the sky and earth was created must be sure shown by the old tradition of our nation.
What if we see the book the Sanso (Nihon-Shoki-Sanso), it has replaced the letters “故曰” (mean “therefore... said”) to “一曰” (mean “one said”). If the book is correct (the book decide it “one said”), we would especially not agree the comment, because that is evidence what the book mainly took the story from foreign country and placed the tradition of our states to the not main place.)
All the Chinese explanations showing how the sky and the earth were created and other are entirely made by average men with a manner which they mold it to the forms with their believing theories, therefore it is artificial hypothesis created by average men’s desires.
Nevertheless, the old tradition in this place is not so.
Although someone didn’t begin to speak, it has the original appearance that was handed down from ancient times, directory.
If we contrast the two, Chinese texts seem to have believable reasons, so it looks like a surely correct, but the our old tradition looks like a one which isn’t a interest, and has no deeply meanings, therefore most of persons, even Toneri-Shinnoh and the many wise are included, hitheto, couldn’t avoid to confuse.
The reason that thus everyone be confused and indulged in, is because all kind of the statements on Chinese texts were shown by the clever persons based on the believable hypotheses created by the persons who were asking the truth of everythigs, to be which themselves and other persons belive.
Nevertheless, because human Intellect has limitations, we are not able to perfectly understand the pure nature, therefore we have to think the explanation saying how the creating of the world must be something state, due to his believing way.
Altough that kind of the hypotheses are frequently doubt even about the recent things, it’s ignorance that the thinking creating the world, the end of the world and anything can be understood with their principle, that is a prejudiced thinking which it doesn’t understand there are many true reasons we can’t reach, because humam intellect has limitations.
It’s ignorance that believe the things by which it just seems to consist with the reason.
In fact, average persons won’t know either it consists with, or doesn’t.
If the hypothsis is brought by an average man, and if stadied by an average man, then why it will be understood?
A man called “sage” to make an ostentatious in that country had had limitations and many unknown things. Much less, why we could believe the hypotheses said by the men having his limitations more than the sage having?
Even so, most of the scholar have been lured into what they have believing even this ostentatious part written by Chinese as the meaning on the way, with the hypotheses created by average man. That is actually a very silly.
We should decide the statement on the introduction of that record as one added as a kind of ostentaitons, and we shouldn’t think it.
Next, “only the 乾(this is ‘sky’, in Chinese language.) appeared, then the pure man appeard” and “the 乾坤(these are ‘sky and earth’, in Chinese language.) appeard at the same time, then the man and woman appeard” are written in the record. Also, these are uncredible statements added by the arbitrary mind of the author.
It reason is because, first, there was not the word said “乾坤” in our states, and if the word isn’t existence, it’s clear that this is not old tradition.
If it’s pure old tradition, it’s natural to merely write it as “the Sky and the Earth”.
If the case has only the difference of the latter writing the Sky and the Earth as “乾坤”, we perhaps would’t take the stances that we don’t agree. But it isn’t actualy agreed, and it’s unture, that was written as which God and deities was born from “乾坤”.
Also these deities must be created just by Takamimusubi-No-Kami and Kamusubi-No-Kami, which two appearances appeared by the God.
Nevertheless, altough we have no way to understand the reason that God appeared, to say, as smartly, the forming of the Sky and the Earth and so, is an imbecility of Chinese thoughts.
And the next, it’s also an imbecility of Chinese thought, that was written, “the deity of Yin said the delightful phrase, then that is contrary to the reason of Yin and Yang” with writing the deity Izanagi as the deity of Yang, and Izanami as the deity of Yin.
It’s actually untrue that there’s the reason of Yin and Yang.
Originally, in the period when we didn’t have a character, such tradition might be not there, hence I think that it would be simply said just as “male deity”, “female deity”, “the reason between males and females”, in that time. This revising is not only the difference of each term, but this is to disturb our studies.
The reason: Because a person having imperfect knowledge would take the meaning, the words “Izanagi-No-Mikoto” and “Izanami-No-Mikoto” are the temporary names of the elements of the creating from Yin and Yang, or they would describe in the chinese hypothesis Yi or Yi-Yang-Wu-Xing, then all of this ancient things will be recognised as fictions, and some of men in Chinese spirits will replace the old tradition to entirely something created in Chinese thought, therefore the true Way can be difficult to be shown.
In that time, the editor could not concern the problem, but preferring that the text be one similar to Chinese texts, so he wrote so to just adorn it. However, that text had become the catalyst making someone to create a incorrect hypothesis, and had become the cause of the difficulty that the true Way is appeard.
Nevertheless, this reason of Yin and Yang has occupied deeply the human mind since long ago, then a great number of persons seems to believe that it is being an essential theory, and it is covering any matters.
This is still the mind confused about the hypothesis from Chinese texts.
After we remove and wash the mind depend from Chinese text, If we think deeply, we will find that The Sky and The Earth is merely The Sky and The Earth, Man and Woman is merely Man and Woman and Water and Fire is merely Water and Fire. Although each factor has a uniqe nature and state, all of these existence has a origin created by God. That reason is a very sacred thing, then, even, it couldn’t be correctly understood by human.
Nonetheless, Chinese had created the notion, Ten-Chi-Yin-Yang, with their imperfect thinkings by their tendencies to forcibly ask the reason of all things, after that, they might preach it just like what no one that The Sky, The Earth and everything, are out of the reason of that.
Thus, something called “Yin and Yang” is just a thing created by Chonese persons. Therefore it is assumed that the other countries don’t have the same statement because it might be very personal hypothesis from Chinese. Then, if we read a Buddhist text from India, we will see the explanation thay said The Creating The World or The origin of human is explained with the matters callad “Four Elements” including Earth, Water, Fire and Wind, and they actually don’t have the hypothesis, “Yin-Yang-wu-xing”.
I rarely find the word between the line, but the word is solely assumed to one in translating, and it doesn’t say the hypothesis.
Even India that tend to persistently say arguments in all thongs, is in such the state, then we have to know that hypothesis Yin-Yang is only the private hypothesis of Chinese persons.
That is originally a hypothesis created by a wise person, then it could make a good guess in some cases, perhaps, about half or three quarters. Therefore almost all of persons in various eras have believed, and not doubt this, However, if we asked what does the reason form the Yin-Yang, we could not know the reason.
Also, there is a concept Taiji-Mugoku. However, if we asked what is the reason forming it, finally, that conclusion is what the reason is not known, then, in fact, something called Yin-Yang-Taiji-Mugoku is an imagination consisting no benefit, and this is such a thing which solely named some concepts known by only a human their various names.
In the first place, that is what Amaterasu-Oh-Mikami is Sun-deity as female-deity, and Tukiyomi-No-Mikoto is Moon-deity as male-deity. We have to find with this facts that the hypothesis Yin-Yang is unture, this is contrary to our old traditions.
Nevertheless, it is nonsense, that unjustly distorting the meaning , according to the belief in the hypothesis, to fit this facts to the hypothesis.
Also, it is written Mizuhanome-No-Kami as “罔象女”, Watatumi as “少童”, these are to follow Chinese style, and the fact doesn’t make us delight.
Moreover, on the volume of Zinmu, the edict of Mikado have been even shown “是時屬鴻荒時鍾草昧故蒙以養正治此西偏皇祖皇考乃神乃聖積慶重暉”(This is not Japanese, but Chinese language. Generally it is assumed saying in Japanese.), thus the state of the statement even have neither an ancient meaning or an ancient expression.
All of that was added by the editor to embellish it.
And in the volume of Mikado Sujin, it is written “惟我皇祖諸天皇等光臨宸極者豈爲一身乎...”, “不亦可乎”. This is same to above the embellished phrase.
Those are thought that most of words as the kind of edicts on Shoki’s volumes for ancient are almost added in order to embellish it.
That reason is why a lot of parts cannot be read in ancient national language. Then we should analogize another parts of similar.
If we see that the Shokki carried a both the edicts (it is popularly called “Senmyouh”) in ancient language and in Chinese language, we cannot find a large number of something of Chinese-like in the edicts of ancient language even in Nara period. Furthermore, we can assume the words of the edicts of ancient times as more antiquity, however the words of the edicts of the Shoki are not more antiquity but solely are more Chinese-like.
And, in the volume of Zinmu, it is written “戰勝而無驕者良將之行也(it is written in Chinese: winning a war and having no arrogance are the deel which a good general had better.)” as the words of Mikado. Perhaps, such as the ward embellished like a wise would be embellishment.
All of the languages have the styles of each periods, and words on the styles would match the actions and the motives of the periods. However the Shoki has not a few words unmatched to the states, the actions and the motives on the times, that is because it has embellished too much.
又同く大御言と天今我是日神子孫而向日征虜此逆天道也（此御言此記尓ハ多多”向日而戦不良と阿里）ま多頼以皇天之威凶徒就戮云々（不亦可乎といふま天”此文春べ天漢意那里）といひま多獲罪於天奈どと阿流類の天盤もはら漢籍意能天尓し天古意にそむ気り ― 天命天心天意天禄奈ど阿る多ぐひみ奈同じ ―
Likewise, about the words taken by Mikado, it say “今我是日神子孫而向日征虜此逆天道也” (in Chinese language: “Because I’m a decendant of Sun-Deity, it is contrary to the way of Ten, that the fighting the enemy from the position against the Sun.”) ― on the Kojiki, that is solely written, “it is not good that we fighting from the position against the Sun” ― , and say “頼以皇天之威凶徒就戮...”(in Chinese language: “Due to the efficacy of Imperial deities, criminal groups were destroyed...”) ― and the following sentences for “不亦可乎” (in Chinese: “this is nice”), are based on Chinese thought ― , and “天” (Ten) in which said some of such as “獲罪於天” (in Chinese: “given the Ten to take a sin”) even take the meaning of Chinese thought, and this is contrary to a National mind from ancient. ― Kinds of Tenmei, Tenshi, Tenyi and Tenloku are same to the above ―
That is why Ten has no mind and no spirit, but it is merely being as a place above the sky which is lived by Amatsu-Kami (deities).
Therefore, Something called “Ten-Do” (a way created by the place of Chinese heaven, not by God.) is not real, then everyone cannot state, without Chinese knowledge, “皇天之威” (efficacy of 皇天: “皇天” has no meaning in Japanese without Chinese knowledge.).
然るを天尓神靈阿る可”如くいひ那し天人乃禍福毛何も世中能事はみ奈その所為とするは漢國のことに天飛可”古と那るを ― 續紀の宣命に天地の心と見え万葉の歌に天地の那し乃ま尓ま尓那どよ免るも奈良のころ尓い多里天ハ既尓漢意のうつり天古意に多可”へること毛まじ連流奈り
Nevertheless, saying what as if Ten has a spirit, and explaining what as if fortune or not all are decided by Ten, are the sily behaivor from China.
― We can find the words, “天地の心” (the minds of Sky and Earth) as the written words as an imperial edict on the Shokki, and, on a poem of Manyoshu, the wotds we can recognize as “天地の那し乃ま尓ま尓” (during the deel by Sky and Earth). This is because, in the Nara-period, due to the included Chinese thought, it have been contained the words contrary to the meaning of ancient.
In the case of foreign country, those peoples say anything as “by Ten”, that is because they have not known the true which anythings are dominated by God, since have not had the correct tradition.
Altough the words called “天帝[Tentei]” or “主宰[Shiusai]” are felt a kind of a word meaning the God, but these are not the words within the accurate views what God is existing.
It is merely a temporary name. To tell the true, if they explained it in the hypothesis of Ten, it mean something differet to God. Pronouncing the written word, “皇天”, as “Ame-No-Kami” is true, if we based on understanding that because Japanese language does not have a meaning, “皇天”, hence it must mean the notion of God.
It is nonsense that, from this pronunciation, someone understand the word, “皇天”, as the meaning of God. When reading the Shoki everytime, you shoud be remembering this difference. If you do not so, you must get an affect from Chinese thought.
― That mistakes have been formed due to the mainly aiming to embellish it with Chinese style.
If a part of the persons in more recent periods take a mistake what they understand “Tenjin” as “Ten”, thinking the name, “Tenjin”, as a temporary name, since a part of the persons confused by Chinese thought are not able to know the fact, then this fact will herm to learning.
― The word, “Tenjin”, surely mean the deities having a appearance, but it is not a prosopopoeia saying a temporary name as Tenjin in the worthless hypothesis, just as Chinese fought. The part, “Ten” in “Tenjin” (meaning, Heaven-deitiy, or deities) mean only the place living the deities, but “Ten” of “Tenjin” does not mean “Ten” of Chinese thought.
The volume of Suizei (Mikado) says “天皇風姿岐嶷少有雄抜之氣乃壯容貌魁偉武藝過人而志尚沈毅” (in Chinese: “Mikado’s appearance is dignified and tall, he has a distinguished brave character, his appearance is brawny at his middle age, his martial arts are superior to others and his ambition is calm and great.” ) and, the volume of Sujin says “天皇識性聰敏幼好雄畧既壯寛博謹慎...” (in Chinese: “Mikado has entirely great judgement, he like great ambitions when he is young, and he has modesty widely at his middle age.”), this kind of texts have also not been transcripted from the appearances of the original traditions.
Records in ancient times have been merely written conducts of Mikado, hence I find out that a large number of the expressions have been added by the writer to embellish it.
The volume of Ohjin (Mikado) says Awaji island as “峯巖紛錯陵谷相續芳草薈蔚長瀾潺湲”(in Chinese: (it has) peaks are steep, hills and valleys complicatedly continue, grass growing so much, and large durgling waves.), and the volume of Yueryaku(Mikado) says the words praising a house as “濩畧而龍翥欻聳擢而鴻驚異體峯生殊相逸發” (in Chinese: (it is) valiant and its prance like a dragon, the appearance suddenly bravely standing is like a surprised bird, its unique body seem to be borne from scared mountain, especially the appearance is distinguished.) , that kind of saying statements are also embellished too much, so the statements are unpleasant Chinese texts.
The volume of Jimmu(Mikado) says “弟猾大設牛酒以勞饗皇師焉” (in Chinese: It have gone, Otoekahi splendidly held a banquet preparing beef and drink, to reword the Imperial vassals...), and the volume of Sujin says “神亀以極致災之所由也” (in Chinese: (Mikado said) why we are not going to divine with a spiritual turtle to know what the cause of the disasters have been come.) These statements must harm us because they have partially lost the meanings of true, with embellishing it.
(it seems a misprint, “馬”. it must be “焉”)
Although there were not a habit eating beef and usimg a turtle to divine even in ancient times.
― 牛酒神亀奈ど書礼多るハ撰者の意ハ多ヾ漢文の潤色のみ奈れど毛後人盤こ連を實と思ふ故に學問の害と那里牛を食飛卜に亀を用流奈どハ外國の俗尓こ楚阿連 ―
The writing “eating beef” and “using a turtle to divine” is merely comformed by editor’s intention embellishing his text in Chinese, but it have become a harm to study, because most of persons must understand that is real, though the hebit eating beef and using a turtle to divine, are only in foreign countries.
The volume of Keikoe says, on the part that Yamato-Takeru-No-Mikoto travelled to eastern area to negotiate it, “天皇持斧鉞以授日本武尊曰...”(in Chinese: Mikado gave Yamato-Takeru-No-Mikoto an ax and broadax, and said...), though there were thigs someone was given a pike or a sword, but was not a habit which giving a ax or broadax.
In fact the Kojiki says, on same episode, “a pike, Hiilagi-No-Yahiro-Hoko”. This is true. However the editor must have written “an ax and a broadax” in an atempt to embellished it.
Sometimes, it is allowed to embellish a word (for exsample: using Latin vocabulary in English so on.), but it is too awful that it has replaced such object to another object.
There are still more this kind of discriptions.
A person reading it shoud remember it.
When Keitai-Tennoh (Mikado) was still on Mikuni in the province of Echizen, some persons of Ohomulaji had consulted with each other, and they try to make him to be inaugurated as Mikado, but he refused the proposal. In the description of that episode, it is written, “大男迹天皇西向譲者三南向譲者再”(in Chinese: Ohodo-No-Sumeramikoto devolved the proposal three times for west, and twice for south.) . However, that thing seems to be nothing in that time.
All the statements before and after this statement have been directly copied from Chinese books.
In the first place, how was the editor doing thus it even made a story of a person’s action to assimirate the text woth Chinese texts.
― 此より次の御代々々もみ奈此例尓記され多り ― 上代の佐ま尓はあら須”
These are not the original statements from ancient times, that the statement, “綏靖天皇元年春正月壬申朔己卯云々尊皇后曰皇大后” (in Chinese language: in the first year of the reign of Suizei-Tennoe [Mikado], Spring, January, MIZUNOE-SARU[ninth of the sexagenary cycle], first day, TUTINOTO-UH[sixteenth of the sexagenary cycle]... ) and similar statements ― after this statement, all of following statements even have been written with that style. ― .
い可尓といふ耳まず上代尓は大后とは當代乃嫡后を申し大御母命をば大御祖と申せれバ那里 ― 此事中卷白檮原宮段尓委久いふべし右尓よらば皇后を意冨岐佐伎皇大后をバ意冨美意夜と訓べし皇大后を意冨岐佐伎と訓天ハ加奈ハず ―
If you ask me that reason, I say, that is because the word “Ohokisaki[大后]”, in ancient time, was meaning the then first wife, and “Ohomihaha-No-Mikoto[大御母命]” was being called, “Ohomioya[大御祖]” in ancient time. ― I am going to closely discribe this matter in the section of Kashihara-No-Miya: in the previous case, we have to pronoun “皇后” as “Ohogisaki”, “皇大后” as “Ohomioya”, then do not say “皇大后” as “Ohogisaki”. ―
さ天皇后を其御子能御世尓至天改め天際や可に皇大后と御號つ気奉里賜ハむこと毛上代のさ満に盤非ず大御母命は元より大御親尓坐ば奈里― 上代尓ハ語をおき天文字は那気れバ外尓皇大后と申須べき御号那きをや ―
It does not match to ancient habits that a former Mikado’s first wife was named clearly “皇大后”(emperor’s wife in Chinese) anew in the reign of har son, because “大御母命” (former Mikado’s first wife) is originally said, “大御母命[Ohomioya]”.
― There are words, are not a letter in ancient times. Therefore the name in letter that shoud be called “皇大后” is nothing. ―
All of the way such as changing a name clearly, are originally of the habit of China.
On top of that, such the way writing the date as “-年”(Year), “-月”(Month) and “-日(朔)”(Day), is more Chinese-like.
We will discus the matter adding the dates fully, in other section.
Although there are a lot of kinds of matters we shoud discus, however, on this discussion, I took only the matters which their embellishments on the style of Chinese texts can be a harm to the study of ancient matters, and said these matters after classfying them.
You shoud perceive what all of this kind of the statements is, by analogy.
Every views from Chinese opinions look like elaborate, and it tend to influence and to mislead a human mind, therefore, a person reading the Shoki, must not forget the point.
○ The Shoki is very difficult to read.
If I say that reason, first, it is included a lot of embellishment making similar to Chinese texts, as which is discussed on above.
At first glance, to read this texts directly, it looks like what we shoud read it just like as reading the chinese texts, of couse, which include, for their letters and for their pronunciations. However there are some of explaings meaning their words, so it shoud not be read as what Chinese texts should be read.
And if we try to read it with ancient Japanese only, nevertheless there are a lot of parts difficult to read, and when reading by analogy, with taking the meanings of their letters, if it is become Japanese language, but, in many cases, the connection and the meaning are still Cheselike.
Therefore if we try to purely read it, we should not stick to the statements and the letters, and we should read in thinking a meaning shown by a statement with considering the state of the words on the Kojiki or the Manyoushu.
Then there are a lot of letters should be excluded from the reading statements, though the excluded letters may reach for ten letters or perhaps twenty letters in length.
However, because the persons of nowadays have given themselves the prejudices on nowadays, so to exactly take clearly the ancient meanings and the pronunciations, is difficult, then, one way or another, it difficult to go beautiful reading.
― 此記尓阿ることは多久其言尓那ら比天よ免り ―
Annotated editions of the Shoki published in nowadays show the ancient pronunciations as much as possible, ― Meny of the words used on this book referred to these words. ― so many of the ancient pronunciations are shown.
Nevertheless, it read other parts as Chinese text by considering the letters, then they are not entirely something showing the ancient meanings and the style distributing the words is from the way to read Chinese texts.
You shoud think of the meaning before you read the Shoki.