古事記傅

(Kojiki-Den)







Kojiki-Den [古事記傅] volume 1, Explanation by Itwse (001)
【The General Introduction of Old Records】



古事記傅一之巻
“Commentary on the Kojiki” Volume 1
※ “Kojiki” is also called “Hurukoto-bumi”, Kojiki’s both names mean “The Record of Ancient Matters.”

本居宣長謹撰
Written by Motoöri Norinaga

古記兎母能總論
The General Introduction of Old Records

前御代の古事志留せ累記王何連及古路よ里有そ免気む
When did we have a record about the old things occured in more previous periods?

書記(日本書記をいふ傅の中み奈然利)の履中天皇の御巻尓四年秋八月始之於諸國置國史記言事と有を思へ者”朝廷尓は是よ里佐起尓既く史阿里天記さ連気む古と知ら連多里
If we focus the statement, “In Autumn, August 403 A.D., for the first time, clerks were appointed to record the traditions in each provinces” in the section of Richu-Tennou in the “Syoki (it means Nihon-Syoki: hereinafter, it will be written so, through this series.)”, we can find that Our Imperial Court have already carried out to write a record, before this record.

楚は曽能時々能事ど毛古そあら免前代の事那どま天”は如何有希む知根止”毛既尓當時の事記さ連たらむ王は住昔能事者多語傳へ堂らむま尓ま尓か川か川”も記之曽々”免ら流べき物那れば其比よ里楚”有楚免気む
Although it had covered the things of that time, but I don’t know if it had covered something in past period. However, because it had been recorded the things in that time, the editor would need to directly record also the past time things that were handed down, from the records as many as possible. Therefore, such the records must existed from that time.
※ The latter, “” in “如何有希む知止”, perhaps looks like “流”. That may be misscopying.






かくて書記修撰しめ給飛し頃盤古記ど毛多く有つと見え多り
Thus, we can think that there were a number of old records on the time when the Syoki was began to edit.

(彼神代巻尓一書と天取連多累可”多きをも天知べし)
(Should understand by the fact that the volume of Kamiyo of that record quote from many records as a reference.)

小治田宮尓天宇し天皇能御代二十八年尓聖德太子命蘇我馬子大臣と共尓天皇記及國記臣連拌造國造百八十部并公民等本記を録し給婦登書紀曽阿累、是ぞ其事能物尓見えた累始ニハ有个流
In the Syoki, it is written below, “In 620 A.D., Syoutoku-Miko-No-Mikoto and Sogano Umako-No-Ooomi had edited the records of imperial’s, countries’s, and 180 sections from Omi-Muraji, Tomono-Miyatsuko and Kunino-Miyatsuko, farthermore, and biographies from the peoples and so on.”
, that must be an evidence of the first record, as much as we can see.
※ The latter “曽” in “書紀曽阿累”, maybe a misscopying. it maybe true, “尓”.

又飛鳥浄御原宮尓御宇し天皇能御代十年に川嶋皇子等十二人ニ詔おふ勢亭帝記及上古諸事を記定し免給ふ阿里
And, in 671 A.D., Mikado ordered 12 members included a person Kawashima-No-Miko a direction to edit the history of Mikado and the various ancient matters. that is written on the Syoki.

然連ど毛此二の記盤共尓世に傳个ら須”
However, those two records wouldn’t be handed down to modern times.

古々に平安宮御宇天津御代豊國成姫天皇御代和銅四年九月十八日ニ太朝臣安万侣尓詔於ふせ天この古事記を撰録しめ給布
Then, on November 7, 711 (Wado 4.9.18, in Japanese calender), Mikado ordered Oo-No-Asomi Yasumaro a direction to finish to edit that the Kojiki.

同五年といふ年能正月二十八日尓那む其功終て貢進里遣ると序に見え多里(續紀尓此事見え春”)
In the introduction of the record, it is written, “On March 13, 712 (Wado 5.1.28, in Japanese calender), that work was completed and submitted.” (But, Shyoku-Nihongi isn’t written this thing.)

然連ば今に傳者れる古記及中尓は此記ぞ最古かり気流
Therefore, this is the oldest record among the existing recods about the ancient matters.

さ天書紀盤同宮御宇高瑞浄足姫天皇御代養老四年にい天”きつと續紀尓記さ連多れ者”彼盤此記尓八年おく禮天那む成連り个累
By the way, according to the Syoku-Nihongi, “the Syoki have been finished to be made in 720 (Yoro 4, in Japanese calender),” then the record, the Syoki, would be finished to be made after eight years from the Kojiki was made.

さ天此記盤字能文を毛からざ春”天もはら古語をむ年とはし天古能實の阿里さ満を失はじと勤多る古と序に見え又今次々に云が如し
We can find it in the introduction of this record, that made efforts to edit it to preserve the real states of ancient times, without a adorning the latters. And that is as follows.

然累尓彼書紀い天”起天よ里世人於しなべ天彼をのみ尊み用飛天此記盤なを多”爾知ぬも多し
However, after the record, the Syoki, was appeared, most of peoples have thought of the Syoki just as important, and just studied it, so there are many persons who don’t know even the title of the Kojiki.

其所以盤い可尓登いふに漢籍及學問佐かりに行ハ連天何事毛彼國のさ満をのみ人毎尓うらやミ好む可らに書紀のそ能漢國及國史と云ふみのさま尓似多る越よ路こび天此記及春那ほなるを見天盤正し起國史の體尓阿ら須”奈ど云天取春”那里む流もの勢”
The reason is what most of persons have exclusively studied the knowledges of Chinese, and prefered or admired the style of Chinese, then they take the Syoki what look similar to the Chinese records in impressions, and they don’t take the Kojiki, with saying, “it is not a correct appearance of the history of our states.”






或人加く云を阿やしみ天問気らく此記い天”き天いくばくも阿らざる尓又書紀を撰し免給へ累盤此記尓誤ある可”故ならじやは
A person suspected a doubt about this explanation and asked me a question, “the reason that the Syoki was edited, though it just completed the editing of the Kojiki, is that the Kojiki has errors, isn’t it?”

己答遣らく然尓は阿らじ
I said, “No, it’s not so.

此記あ累うえ尓更尓書紀を撰し免給え累盤そのかミ公尓毛漢學問を盛尓好ませ多ふをり可ら那里し可ば此記及あまりただ阿里に餝奈く天可能漢の國史ど毛尓くら婦”連者”見多”天那く浅々と聞ゆる越不足お毛ほし天更尓廣く事ど毛を考へ加へ年紀を立奈登”し者多漢免かし起語ど毛かざり添奈どもし天漢文章を那し天加しこの尓似多流國史と立む多め尓ぞ撰しめ賜え里気む
The reson why, though the Kojiki was available at that time, the imperial court ordered them to edit Syoki, is that, because the imperial court had very prefered the studies of Chinese knowledge around that time, they felt that the records had not be enough the respectable looks and short to compare the records of China, so they would order it to edit it that have added things, periods for edited and impressions like Chinese, with Chinese language, to edit the records having the respectable looks just like Chinese recoreds.

い天”其由越委曲尓い者む尓ハ先可能川嶋皇子等に仰せ天帝紀等を撰し免給飛し古と上尓いへ累古”とく尓天其後又和銅七年に毛紀朝臣清人三宅臣藤麻吕に詔おふせ天國史を撰しめ賜ひし古と續紀尓見ゆ
Well, if I closely say its origin, that in the Syoku-Nihongi shows ‘first, it ordered Kawasima-No-Miko and other menbers to edit the Teiki, as mentioned above, and then also it gave Ki-No-Asomi-Kiyohito and Miyake-No-Omi-Hujimalo the imperial edict, and had them to edit the Kokushi in 714 A.D. (Wado 7 in Japanese calendar).’

此二度及撰の中尓川嶋皇子等の盤此記の草創と同じく浄御原能大御代奈累中に此記の始盤彼より前なりし可後那りし可知可”多き越もし彼撰此記及者じ免より前奈ば是ま多諸家之所齎帝紀及本辭既違正實多加虚偽と此序にある内尓在て彼撰も正實に多可”ひ虚偽をぞ加へ堂り気む
The editing by Kawashima-No-Miko among these two was begun to preform in the same period, when there was the imperial palace on ‘Kiyomihara’, same as the Kojiki was begun to. However it is difficult to decide whether the beginning to edit the Kojiki is before the Teiki, or after, if the Teiki begun to edit before the Kojiki, then, because it is written on the introduction of Kojiki, that is, ‘the records of the Teiki that given from the possessions of many families are already not fully ture and included many fallacy’, in that state, the editing for the Syoki would not be fully ture and would be included many fallacy.






毛しま多後那らば於も保し免し立し此記の事も彼撰尓天事足りぬべき王那る尓運移世異未行其事矣と序にあるを思へば此と彼とは其趣別奈る古とと聞え多里
Or, if it after the Kojiki editing was started, the Teiki has enough contents, so the Kojiki was useless, but the introduction of the Kojiki says “although the times change, the thing still hasn’t been done.”, therefore, when thinking about this introduction, this record and that record seem to have the different meanings from each other.

そ能別那る気志”免盤彼撰ハ潤色を加え天漢及國史尓似春る越㫖とし此盤古能正實の佐満を傳へむ可”多め那るべし
The reason why both of those have different meanings from each other, should be recognized that the editing for the Syoki aaimed to make it looks like Chinese records, and the editing for the Kojiki aimed to bequeath the facts of ancient times.

其意序尓見え多り
We can feel editor’s motive in the introduction.

加く天平城の大御代尓至天其大御志を繼坐天太朝臣に仰せ天加の稗田阿禮可”誦習多る故事ど毛撰録し免賜へ累那里
Then, in the period when there was the capital in Heijou-kyou, Kenmu-Tennou had accepted the spirit of that motive, and had ordered Oono-Asomi to edit the record based on the old matters memorized by famous Hi-No-Da-No-Ale.

次尓可能和銅七年に撰しめ賜飛し史盤又彼潤色能方那るべし
And the record edited in Wado 7 (714) must be one given a embellishment.

佐天養老能又し毛舎人御子に仰せ天書記を撰し免多まふ
Furthermore, in the period Yoro (717-724), it ordered Toneri-No-Miko to edit the Syoki.

抑加く能如く佐し徒徒”きたるは可能潤色の史二那可”ら宜し可ら須”天大御心尓可那者春”ぞ有りむ加し
The reason why, thus, those was edited in succession, must be thought that two embellished records was not able to make Mikado to be satisfied.

佐連ばこ連らハ當時者やく廢連多里とお本”しく天世尓傳者ら春”名多”尓毛のこらぬ那るべし
Therefore, these seem that quickly became unattened around that time, so these are not handed down in the current era, and even the names are become unknown.

然る尓書記盤さ起ざ起の尓勝里天宜しき故尓正史と定ま里天其後盤又改め撰バ累累事毛なかりし那里
However, the Syoki was recognized one having a superiority over the preceding two, then it is decided as the standard record of history, and the similar editings had not been gone after the decision.

かく天この古事記盤書記い天”き天後々も那本廢ら連ざりつと見ゆ累は可の二の史乃可ざり多き可”類尓はあら須”天古の正實越記せる可”由ゑなるべし
Nevertheless, the Kojiki seems that it has continued to exist since the Syoki released. That reason must be that the record is not a kind of previous two adorned with embellished, and it is recorded to the true of ancient times.






さ連ば書記を撰者”礼しは此記の誤ある可”故尓ハ阿ら須”
Given the case, the reason why the Syoki was edited is not because the Kojiki had an error.

も登よ里其趣古と那る毛の那里
From the first, it has the meanings deferent to each other.

もし誤阿里とし天改め撰者”連む尓は是毛可能二乃史乃如く楚の可み者やく廢流べき尓此記のミは今世ま天”毛傳ハ連るを思ふべし
Suppose it has had an error, and it still wasn’t reduced, then that must be immediately forgotten just like as the two records, however, only the record has been known up to the present time. You should think of the fact.

又或人後世ま天”傳ハ累盤傳者らざるとはおの川”加ら能古とに古楚阿ら免加那ら須”冝 き尓よ里天傳者里冝可ら佐”累によ里天傳ハらざ累尓毛阿ら佐”る遍”し凡天漢尓毛此間尓毛古能書のいとよろし起も絶え佐も阿らぬ毛廣傳ハ連る多ぐひ多き尓阿ら春”やと疑婦
By the way, there was a happen that a person suspected, “whethr it has been handed down for the later eras or not, are decided accidentally. Because it is not correct that good one were handed down, and not good one were not handed down, commonly, in China and Our states, such the case are lot which the very good old works are forgotten, and not very good works are handed down. Is this untrue?”

答気らく大可多はさ流古と那連ど毛こ連は奈本然らじ
I answered, “in many case it is true, but even so, in this case it isn’t so.”

先彼二乃史ハ書紀續紀尓毛其事を記春るる保ど尓天公能書那連ば毛しおのづ可らに絶多らむ尓者志可春可”尓志バらくは世間尓毛のこり天人毛志里後代尓毛其名者”可り多”尓毛遺るべき尓佐ら尓そ乃名を多”尓志ら須”
First, those two were official records because Syoki and Shokki have recorded the things about the two, therefore, if the two were accidentally forgotten, it must not forget quickly, and many people recognized two around that time, at least, those titles should be handed down. However, persons does not know even the titles of two.

既く平城の代尓春ら知人毛那可りし尓や万葉集尓古能事越證免多る註奈ど尓毛引多るを見春”
In the period of Nara (710-784), already no one knew the records, but we couldn’t find that were refered with an annotation describing old matters in Manyousyuu and other works.

然るに此記盤潤色那くただ阿里に記し天漢の國史奈登”の體とハい多く異奈る物奈れ者”もし誤多加らむ尓はさしも漢籍好ましし世尓者やく癈ら連天と里見流人も有るまじくまし天後代ま天”ハ傳ハるまじ起物奈流尓千年の後まで毛傳者り来つるを思へばそのかみ書記い天”き亭毛奈本志可春可”尓公尓毛用飛ら連世人毛讀つとハ見え天可の万葉那ど尓毛往々に引出个る毛のをや
Nevertheless, Kojiki doesn’t like the national records of China, which having no embellishment and just recorded the pure traditions, therefore, if it had a lot of errors, it would be immediately forgotten, wouldn’t be to attract some persons and wouldn’t be handed down, because thus the people preferring Chinese books are many in that time. However, it does be handed down from the time for thousand years later, then I think that though Syoki have been edited, but even it would be used in public, civilians would also read it, and it be referred on Manyoushiu.







(上件の趣春べ天詳尓ハ知べき那ら禰ど毛序の詞と可の二の史撰者”連し跡とを考へ合せ天加くも有个むと思者るる春ぢを一王多里いへ累那里)
(I can not clearly discovered the above. By the way, I said a guessable hypothesis, besed on the both meanings of the introduction of the Kojiki and the tracks that two records was edited.)

又問彼川嶋皇子等に仰せし撰の事は書紀尓見え和銅七年乃と書記との事毛續紀尓載ら連多る尓此古事記を撰バし免給飛し古とは見えぬを思へ者”此記盤彼史ど毛能如き嚴重き公事尓ハ阿ら天”ただ内々能小事と見え又書紀尓神代巻など尓一書と天舉ら連多る可”數阿る中尓此記を取連多りとお本”し起毛阿連ば此記盤そ能可み如是累記録ど毛多尓有遣む中能一書と見え多里佐天書記盤その記録ど毛皆撰飛”取連天此毛彼毛集め天足者ぬ古登なく備連連ばさら尓此記の比尓あら須”此記盤い可天”可其と等那み尓尚飛”用婦べ可らむ
Moreover, he ask me, “The thing about the editing that Kawashima-No-Miko was orderd is recorded on the Syoki, and the things about the editing in 714 (Wado 7) and the Syoki are recorded on Shokki, but we’re not able to find a record about the editing the Kojiki. Considering the above, I think that the record isn’t a important public matter, but I think of the record as a personal small matter. It seems in which Jindaiki and other of the Syoki take it as one of references, so it seemed, in that time, one amoung a lot of such records (they don’t have large value). In contrast, the Syoki contains almost the valuable matters and gather from many records, therefore, it has no lack, then it is inconparable with the Kojiki. Why you can regared this record as important as that record?”

答此記盤可能一書ど毛能中の一尓し天み奈書紀尓えらび取連天可連は事備連りと乃論ハ謂連多里
I answered.
Indeed, there are a such opinions which judge the Kojiki as one of records referred by the Syoki, and the Syoki has entirely referred the records, therefore the Syoki has very enough contents.

誠尓書紀ハ事越記さるる古登廣く者多其年月日奈どま天”詳尓天不足こと那き史奈連ば此記の及バざ累古と毛多ハ云毛佐ら那里
In fact, because the Syoki has taken many matters from various traditions, and even has been written the date of those matters, so the record has no lack, therefore, it is able to agree, and needless to say, that the Kojiki doesn’t has some parts the Syoki having.

然盤阿連ど毛又此記の優連る事をい者むに盤先神代尓書籍と云物那くし天ただ人の口尓言傳へ多らむ事ハ必書紀の文乃如く尓は非春”天此記の詞の如くにぞ有けむ
However, if I say that the point of the Kojiki is being superior to the Syoki, I say, “because there was not a texts in ancient times, and there had been only the handing down with oral, hence it would certainly not be like the words of the Syoki, but like the words of the Kojiki.






彼盤も者ら漢尓似累を㫖とし天其文章を加ざ連累を此ハ漢に加加はら春”多多”古能語言を失ハぬを主とせ里
The Syoki has been molded the style to imitate of Chinese, as much as possible, but the Kojiki hasn’t been affected by Chinese, on top on that, editing has avoided to solely lose the antiquity language.

(其故ハ次の巻の序の下に委くいふべし)
(The reason is closely showed where following the introduction of the next book.)

抑意と事と言とハみ奈相称へる物尓し天上代盤意毛事毛言毛上代後代盤意毛事毛言毛後代漢國ハ意毛事毛言毛漢國奈るを書紀盤後代の意をも天上代の事を記し漢國の言を以皇國の意を記さ連多る故尓阿ひ可那はざる古登多加るを此記はいささか毛佐可しらを加へ春”て古よ里云傳へ多るままに記され多連バその意毛事毛言毛相称天皆上代の實奈里
In the first place, they must match each other, meanings, things and words. In an ancient time, each one has ancient meanings, showing ancient things and being showed in ancient words. In the time followed by the ancient time, each one has following time’s meanings, showing following time’s things and showed in following time’s words. In Chinese, each one has a Chinese meanings, showing a Chinese things and showed in Chinese words. However, The Syoki has been written the things in the ancient times with the following time’s meanings, and the meaning of our states are showed in Chinese words, therefore, it has many unmatched points. In contrast, the Kojiki has been written directly without the thought of the writer, hence, its meanings, things and words match to each other, and these are an ancient true states.

是も者ら古の語言を主とした累可”故ぞかし
This would be because it focused the pronouncing words in ancient times.

春べ天意毛事毛言を以天傳累もの那連ば書ハその記せ累言辞楚”主尓ハ有个流
All of meanings and things are to be handed down with words, therefore, the kind of written words must be important subjects.

又書紀盤漢文章を思ハ連多るゆゑ尓皇國の古語能文ハ失多る可”多を此記ハ古言能まま那る可”故尓上代の言の文毛いと美麗し起毛のをや
In contrast, due to the preference for Chinese style, the Syoki has lost the nuances of antiquuty Japanese, but the Kojiki has directly written in the old language, then its style of the old langage would be so beautiful.

然連ば多とひ可能一書ど毛乃中能一尓し天重き公の書典尓ハ阿ら須”と毛尚飛”用ふべきをまし天是盤浄御原宮御宇天皇能厚き大御志よ里起里天婦多多飛”平城大御代の詔命尓よ里天撰録連多るうへ盤佐ら尓輕輕し起私の書能比尓阿須”
Therefore, even if it is merely one of the various references, and is not a inportant official document, still, we should value it, and especially, in which the Pope in the period of Kiyomino-Miya had ordered to edit it, and the imperial edict in the period of Heijou had it to restart the editing, then it shouldn’t be compared with an uninportant personal document.

可連古礼を思へ者”いよよま春ま須尊び仰ぐべきは此記尓那む有个流
If we think of such things, then one that shoud be more and more attended and respected is actually this record, the Kojiki.

然あ累物をその可み漢學のミ佐可りに行者礼多し天下能御制ま天”毛よ路づ漢様尓那里来ぬる世尓し阿れ者”加加流書典の類ま天”飛多ぶる尓漢ざ満那累を悦飛”天表尓立ら連上代の正實那るはし毛返天裏に奈り天私物乃如久尓ぞ有个む
Nevertheless, in the time, the society was solely performimg the Chinese studies and even the institutions of Japan was becoming similar to Chinese, people was solely respecting which is similar to the Chinese style on such the records. Also, the truth of ancient times which should be on the main place would have been being just on the sub, and it became to be seemed one of private writings.






故其撰定乃事毛續紀奈どに毛載ら連佐”り気るな流遍”し
Hence, it must have been becoming to appear in the records, especially the Shokki.

さ天後盤いよよ其心者”へ尓天取見る人毛罕らに奈里世々の識者者多是をば正し起國史の體尓阿ら須”とし天那本ざ里に思ひ奈すこ楚いと毛いと毛哀し个れ
After that, the thinking showed above became to be believed, and persons reading that record are to be small number, and most of scholars in many periods for today finally decided what this is not a correct style of national records, and think it as unimportant. That have been very sad.

抑皇國尓古き國史といふ物外尓傳者らざれバ其體と例尓引者漢の那累べ个礼者”そ能體備連りといふ毛漢乃尓似多るをよろこ婦”奈里
Since there was not national records in the first place of our Empire, the judgement which a record has a correct style, must be to prefer the style like a Chinese.

漢尓邊つら婦心し那久ば彼尓春”と天何事可はあらむ
In the thinking without fawning on China, is there a probrem, if it is not similar to the Chinese one?

春べ天萬乃事漢を主としてよさ阿しさを定むる世の那ら飛古そいとをこな連
A manner in the present time, what judges good or not good based on Chinese as standard, has been just unwise.

爰に吾岡部大人(賀茂真淵縣主)東國の遠朝廷能御許尓し天古學をいざ奈ひ給へるによ里天千年に毛お本く餘ま天”久しく心の底尓染著多流漢籍意のき多那き古とを且々毛佐と礼累人い天”き天此記の尊きこと越世人毛知初多るは學の道尓ハ神代よ里た久”ひ毛那支彼大人の功尓那む阿りける
Dear my master Okabe (Agatanushi, Kamo-No-Mabuchi), leaded to Kogaku with a permission given by the branch of Empire in eastern Japan. By that work, thus, so muny persons have realized that the spirits of Chinese literature are bery evil and have been realizing this record as important. That is a incomparable work in the way of study from ancient times.

宣長者多此御蔭尓頼天此意を悟里初天年月を経るま尓ま尓いよよ益益加ら婦”みごこ路乃穢汚き古と越佐とり上代の清ら可那累正實を奈む熟ら尓見得てし阿連ば此記を以天阿累可”中能最上多る史典と定免天書記をバ是可”次尓立流物ぞ
I also have realized the meaning, and been being gradually to realize that Chinese sprits are evil, then I have found closely the trues in ancient times, hence I decide this record as the highest in existence, and I say Syoki as the second.






加り楚免尓毛皇大御國の學問尓心ざしなむ徒盤ゆ免此意を那思誤里そ
A person aspiring to study the learning of our great empire must never mistake the this meaning.



2017.3.22 五瀬 [Itwse]







『國文華協会』 目次へ




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